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Cloud Computing

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One of the most ambiguous technical terms in history, cloud computing is similar to e-commerce in this regard. In the computing field, the term “cloud computing” has lately become fashionable. Many think that the cloud will undergo a revolution that will change the IT sector (Dillon et al., 2010). One reason is because cloud computing may be applied in a wide range of situations, and another is that many businesses are making a big deal out of it in order to promote their products. We can observe that cloud computing is in a period of rapid growth from the Hyper Cycle provided by Gartner Group in 2008 (Qian et al., 2009). The “Hazy Cloud” phenomena are a result of the fact that every cloud service now provides a unique mechanism for users, apps, and clients to connect with the cloud. Due to vendor locking, which prevents customers from selecting from several suppliers or offers at once to maximize resources across various organizational levels; this seriously impedes the growth of cloud ecosystems. More significantly, proprietary cloud APIs make it exceedingly challenging to connect cloud services with a company’s own in-house legacy systems. Here, the term “interoperability” refers to both connections between various clouds and to connections between a cloud and the local systems of an organization. Realizing smooth data exchange between cloud-based apps and local ones is the main objective of interoperability (Dillon et al., 2010).

The transition from locally installed software to cloud computing is only now beginning in earnest. All tiers of the computing ecosystem—from end users to software developers, IT managers, and even hardware manufacturers—will be impacted by the transition. It may be said that what we’re witnessing right now is the second coming of cloud computing. When personal computers and workstations took the role of terminals in the 1980s, people could execute applications locally thanks to the client-server architecture that provided a central repository for shared data. Currently, functions are moving outside to far-off data centers that may be accessed over the Internet, changing the location of computation once more. If only because there isn’t a hub, the new system isn’t nearly a return to the time-sharing systems’ hub-and-spoke design. The Internet allows for simultaneous communication between a client computer and a large number of servers, some of which may also be sharing data among themselves (Hayes, 2008).

Cloud computing environments aid in grid computing by immediately supplying real and virtual servers on which grid applications may be executed. When using a grid computing system, a major task is broken up into several smaller ones that are carried out simultaneously on various computers. Servers, PCs, and laptops are frequently used in grids, which demand a large number of computers—often thousands. Clouds may also be used in non-grid situations, such a three-tiered Web architecture hosting conventional or Web 2.0 applications. A cloud is more than just a repository for computer resources since it also offers a way to manage those resources. Provisioning, change requests, reimaging, workload balance, deprovisioning, and monitoring all fall under the category of management (Teguh Prasetyo1*, Nanik Susanti2*, 2012). When using cloud computing, you typically pay just for the resources that a given calculation needs by using a usage-based billing model. The cloud is only called upon by computations that need more resources. This capacity of a cloud to offer more resources as needed is also referred to as elastic or utility computing. Therefore, businesses have a variety of alternatives for getting cloud services, including managing their own private clouds or acquiring cloud services from a third party utilizing the elastic, usage-based e-pricing model (Grossman, 2009). The service oriented conceptional trait abstracts the intricacies of inner implementations. As a technological property, the loose coupling is the main technical aspect of all sorts of cloud computing systems. Cloud computing is far more adaptable to the commonly used network understructure because to its excellent fault tolerance. The key factor that makes so many businesses choose cloud computing over other areas of study like high performance computing and grid computing is the economic trend. The user experience is easy to use, which hides the complexity of cloud service providers and gives consumers of the cloud relatively straightforward user interfaces. Other types of features include virtualization, strong security, and Transmission Control Protocol/Internet Protocol, which is particularly Internet-based (Gong et al., 2010).

The present storage and computing facilities are under intense demand as a result of the Internet’s rapid expansion. The inexpensive commodity PCs became the primary hardware platform used by Internet service providers. The development of various software technologies that enable these PCs to function elastically has resulted in the development of three primary cloud computing architectures based on resource abstraction technologies: the Amazon style, the Google style, and the Microsoft style. Such as;

  • The server virtualization technology underlies Amazon’s cloud computing. In the period from 2006 to 2007, Amazon introduced the Xen-based Elastic Compute CloudTM, object storage service, and structural data storage service under the moniker Amazon Web ServiceTM. Infrastructure as a Service pioneer AWS establishes itself as on-demand and more affordable.
  • The sandbox approach is the foundation of Google’s design. From 2003 to 2006, Google produced a number of research papers that describe a specific type of platform-as-a-service cloud computing. The platform, known as Google App EngineTM, is made available to the general public in 2008 as a service.
  • Released in October 2008, Microsoft AzureTM uses.NET as the application container and Windows Azure Hypervisor as the foundational cloud architecture. Other services provided by Azure include SQL service and BLOB object storage.

It is difficult to decide which is superior, however it appears that server virtualization is more adaptable and compatible with current software and applications, whereas sandboxes impose more limitations on programming languages but less abstraction cost. Currently, the most well-liked resource abstraction method in cloud computing is server virtualization (Qian et al., 2009).

Software as a Service is a term that has been used to describe the services themselves for many years. a Application-level security is the responsibility of the cloud user. Some suppliers refer to their products as being provided “as a service” or “as a platform.” In addition to potentially being in charge of enforcing external firewall rules, the cloud provider is also in charge of physical security. The operator and the user share security responsibilities for the intermediary levels of the software stack; the more abstraction that is exposed to the user, the greater the operator’s level of accountability (Armbrust et al., 2010). With cloud computing, the “unit of computing” has changed from a single computer or rack of computers to a data center of computers. The data center is now the simplest way to describe a computer system. In addition to scaling computation to the data center, cloud computing has also created software, systems, and programming paradigms that dramatically simplify accessing and utilizing these resources (Grossman, 2009). By removing the requirement for innovators to locate resources to develop, test, and make their inventions accessible to the user community, cloud computing encourages creativity. Inventors are free to concentrate on their ideas rather than the details of locating and controlling the resources needed to make their ideas possible (Hayes, 2008). In cloud computing, the terms “cloud” and “data center” are interchangeable. Because of the incredible advancements in computing and information technology over the past three decades, the computing industry is now able to foresee moving into the cloud computing era. The development of the Internet backbone, the widespread use of broadband Internet access, the strong network of servers and storage in data centers, the development of high-performance and scalable software infrastructure for data centers and the Web, etc., are just a few examples of the advancements (Kim, 2009).

References

Armbrust, M., Fox, A., Griffith, R., Joseph, A. D., Katz, R., Konwinski, A., Lee, G., Patterson, D., Rabkin, A., Stoica, I., & Zaharia, M. (2010). A view of cloud computing. Communications of the ACM, 53(4), 50–58. https://doi.org/10.1145/1721654.1721672

Dillon, T., Wu, C., & Chang, E. (2010). Cloud computing: Issues and challenges. Proceedings – International Conference on Advanced Information Networking and Applications, AINA, 27–33. https://doi.org/10.1109/AINA.2010.187

Gong, C., Liu, J., Zhang, Q., Chen, H., & Gong, Z. (2010). The characteristics of cloud computing. Proceedings of the International Conference on Parallel Processing Workshops, 275–279. https://doi.org/10.1109/ICPPW.2010.45

Grossman, R. L. (2009). The case for cloud computing. IT Professional, 11(2), 23–27. https://doi.org/10.1109/MITP.2009.40

Hayes, B. (2008). Cloud Computing. Communications of the ACM, 51(7), 9–11. https://doi.org/10.1145/1364782.1364786

Kim, W. (2009). Cloud computing: Today and Tomorrow. Journal of Object Technology, 8(1), 65–72. https://doi.org/10.5381/jot.2009.8.1.c4

Qian, L., Luo, Z., Du, Y., & Guo, L. (2009). Cloud Computing : An Overview 1 Definitions of Cloud Computing. IEEE International Conference on Cloud Computing, 626–631.

Teguh Prasetyo1*, Nanik Susanti2*, W. A. T. (2012). Cloud Computing คืออะไร ? Cloud Computing ดีอย่างไร ? Webpage, 17(I), 55. https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Cloud_computing#/media/File:Cloud_computing.svg%0Ahttps://www.it24hrs.com/2015/cloud-computing-and-cloud-definition/

Diluka Bandara
Diluka Bandara
senior student, Rajarata university of Sri Lanka

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